Relation of refractive index change to ti-concentration in ti-diffused LiNbO3 waveguide doped with Sc3+

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Detail(s)

Original languageEnglish
Article number6832430
Pages (from-to)2666-2670
Journal / PublicationJournal of Lightwave Technology
Volume32
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2014

Abstract

Multimode Ti4+-diffused LiNbO3 planar waveguide doped with Sc3+ ions was fabricated by codiffusion of stacked Sc 2O3 and Ti-metal thin film coated onto Z-cut congruent LiNbO3 substrate at 1060 °C in wet O2. The Ti 4+-concentration was profiled by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The refractive index profile is constructed from measured mode index, and correlated with the Ti4+ profile. Other two related issues including the contribution of Sc $^{3+}{\hbox{-}}$doping to substrate refractive index and Li2O out-diffusion were also studied. The results show that the Sc3+-doping has little contribution to the substrate index and the Li2O out-diffusion was effectively suppressed. The index change and Ti4+-concentration follow an exponential relationship with a power index 0.54/0.79 for the ordinary/extraordinary ray. The relationship is similar to that of conventional Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide because of little contribution of Sc 3+-doping to the substrate index and effective suppression for Li 2O out-diffusion. Some considerations for fabricating an optical-damage-resistant Ti:Sc:LiNbO3 waveguide are given. © 2013 IEEE.

Research Area(s)

  • Photorefractive effect, refractive index change

Citation Format(s)

Relation of refractive index change to ti-concentration in ti-diffused LiNbO3 waveguide doped with Sc3+. / Zhang, De-Long; Qiu, Cong-Xian; Wong, Wing-Han; Yu, Dao-Yin; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun.

In: Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 32, No. 15, 6832430, 01.08.2014, p. 2666-2670.

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review