Regulation of type III secretion system in Pseudomonas syringae

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4465-4477
Journal / PublicationEnvironmental Microbiology
Issue number12
Online published13 Aug 2019
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2019


Pseudomonas syringae is a model phytopathogenic bacterium that uses the type III secretion system (T3SS) to cause lethal diseases in staple crops and thus presents a threat to food security worldwide. Great progress has been made in delineating the biochemical mechanisms and cellular targets of T3SS effectors, but less is known about the signalling pathways and molecular mechanisms of T3SS regulators. In recent years, thanks to the popularity and power of genome-wide mutant screening and high-throughput sequencing, new regulatory proteins (such as RhpR, AefR, AlgU and CvsR) and proteases (such as Lon and RhpP) have been identified as T3SS regulators in P. syringae pathovars. The detailed mechanisms of previously illustrated regulators (such as HrpRS, HrpL and HrpGV) have also been further studied. Notably, the two-component system RhpRS has been determined to play key roles in the modulation of T3SS via direct regulation of hrpRS and other virulence-related pathways by sensing changes in environmental signals. In addition, secondary messengers (such as c-di-GMP and ppGpp) have been shown to fine-tune the activity of T3SS. Overall, these studies have suggested the existence of a highly intricate regulatory network for T3SS, which controls the pathogenicity of P. syringae. This short review summarizes studies of P. syringae T3SS regulation and the known mechanisms of key regulators.