FLoRa+ : Energy-Efficient, Reliable, Beamforming-Assisted, and Secure Over-The-Air Firmware Update in LoRa Networks

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Original languageEnglish
Article number54
Number of pages28
Journal / PublicationACM Transactions on Sensor Networks
Issue number3
Online published22 Jan 2024
Publication statusPublished - May 2024


The widespread deployment of unattended LoRa networks poses a growing need to perform Firmware Updates Over-The-Air (FUOTA). However, the FUOTA specifications dedicated by LoRa Alliance fall short of several deficiencies with respect to energy efficiency, transmission reliability, multicast fairness, and security. This paper proposes FLoRa+, energy-efficient, reliable, beamforming-assisted, and secure FUOTA for LoRa networks, which is featured with several techniques, including delta scripting, channel coding, beamforming, and securing mechanisms. Specifically, we first propose a joint differencing and compression algorithm to generate the delta script for processing gain, which unlocks the potential of incremental FUOTA in LoRa networks. Then, we design a concatenated channel coding scheme with outer rateless code and inner error detection to enable reliable transmission for coding gain. Afterward, we develop a beamforming strategy to avoid biased multicast and compromised throughput for power gain. Finally, we present a securing mechanism incorporating progressive hash chain and packet arrival time pattern verification to countermeasure firmware integrity and availability attacks for security gain. Experimental results on a 20-node testbed demonstrate that FLoRa+ improves transmission reliability and energy efficiency by up to 1.51 × and 2.65 × compared with LoRaWAN. Additionally, FLoRa+ can defend against 100% and 85.4% of spoofing and Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks. © 2024 Copyright held by the owner/author(s). Publication rights licensed to ACM.

Research Area(s)

  • LoRa, Firmware Update Over-The-Air

Bibliographic Note

Full text of this publication does not contain sufficient affiliation information. With consent from the author(s) concerned, the Research Unit(s) information for this record is based on the existing academic department affiliation of the author(s).