http://program.aomonline.org/2008/pdf/AOM_2008_Annual_Meeting_Program.pdfResearchers in strategic management have come to realize the value of market orientation in strategic issues recently. However, the cross-fertilization between marketing and strategic management has yet to come. This study takes an exploratory efforts in linking market orientation with a fundamental strategic issue—managerial interpretation. In doing so, we examine how a firm’s customer orientation and competitor orientation may distinctively affect managerial interpretation as either opportunity or threat, and how such managerial interpretation may further impact a firm’s innovation competence development. We find that a firm’s customer orientation is more likely related to opportunity perception while competitor orientation is more likely related to threat perception. Further, we find that whereas a threat perception is positively related to exploitation competence in innovation, an opportunity perception enhances innovation competences in both exploration and exploitation. These relationships are however, subjected to several important contingent factors. Overall, our findings suggest a very complex mechanism for market orientation to affect strategic outcomes.