Three-dimensional piezoceramic sheets via mold-assisted sintering as 3D energy transducers

Research output: Journal Publications and ReviewsRGC 21 - Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)74-83
Number of pages10
Journal / PublicationMaterials Today
Online published22 Jul 2023
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023


Bulk piezoceramics are widely used and functional materials, but they are hard to be shaped to adapt to complex 3D surfaces. Most existing ceramic shaping techniques, like 3D printing, come at the cost of physical properties such as piezoelectricity and thermal stability. Here to fabricate 3D piezoceramic sheets, we report a mold-assisted sintering (MAS) method that can replicate 3D surfaces with nonzero Gaussian curvatures while maintaining the intrinsic properties. Assisted with supporting molds, the MAS exploits elastic-to-viscous transition of piezoceramic powder compacts during sintering, bypassing the boundaries of deformation and surface development in an elastic continuum. We successfully replicate shapes to sintered lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics from designed molds with saddle, sine and spherical surfaces, respectively. The PZT ceramic replicas show high piezoelectricity and excellent conformability towards nonplanar surfaces (maximum deviation 90 μm). We further demonstrate the advantage of the conformal curved piezoceramics by using them for wirelessly transferring power over a pipeline. The MAS method is low-cost, simple, scalable and applicable to various 3D energy transducers. © 2023 Elsevier Ltd.

Research Area(s)

  • 3D electronics, Energy harvesting, Non-destructive testing, Shaping ceramics, Smart materials