Randomness evaluation for an optically injected chaotic semiconductor laser by attractor reconstruction

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Original languageEnglish
Article number42214
Journal / PublicationPhysical Review E
Volume94
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 18 Oct 2016

Abstract

State-space reconstruction is investigated for evaluating the randomness generated by an optically injected semiconductor laser in chaos. The reconstruction of the attractor requires only the emission intensity time series, allowing both experimental and numerical evaluations with good qualitative agreement. The randomness generation is evaluated by the divergence of neighboring states, which is quantified by the time-dependent exponents (TDEs) as well as the associated entropies. Averaged over the entire attractor, the mean TDE is observed to be positive as it increases with the evolution time through chaotic mixing. At a constant laser noise strength, the mean TDE for chaos is observed to be greater than that for periodic dynamics, as attributed to the effect of noise amplification by chaos. After discretization, the Shannon entropies continually generated by the laser for the output bits are estimated in providing a fundamental basis for random bit generation, where a combined output bit rate reaching 200 Gb/s is illustrated using practical tests. Overall, based on the reconstructed states, the TDEs and entropies offer a direct experimental verification of the randomness generated in the chaotic laser.