Factor analysis and psychometric evaluation of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) with Chinese people

Research output: Journal Publications and ReviewsRGC 21 - Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19-30
Journal / PublicationSocial Behavior and Personality
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2007
Externally publishedYes


This study examines the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of Connor and Davidson's Resilience Scale (CD-RISC; 2003), an American instrument originating from a posttraumatic stress disorder research program. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Chinese data failed to verify the original 5-factor structure of CD-RISC obtained in the USA, while exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 3-factor structure of resilience (labeled respectively as Tenacity, Strength, and Optimism). The reliability coefficient of the Chinese version of CD-RISC was 0.91. The validity of CD-RISC was also satisfying in terms of the actual data matching the expected correlation between resilience measure and the variables of self-esteem, life satisfaction, and personality trait factors of NEO-FH. It is concluded that the construct of resilience and its measurement from the West can be helpful and applicable in understanding Chinese adaptive behaviors, however, the understanding of the construct may also need some modification according to Chinese culture.

Research Area(s)

  • Chinese version of connor and davidson's resilience scale, Culture, Factor structure, Optimism, Psychometric properties, Resilience, Strength, Tenacity