Zr4+/Ti4+ codiffusion characteristics in lithium niobate

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

3 Scopus Citations
View graph of relations


Related Research Unit(s)


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)567-573
Journal / PublicationJournal of the American Ceramic Society
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 3 Dec 2014


Zr4+/Ti4+-codoped LiNbO3 plates were prepared by local codiffusion of stacked ZrO2 and Ti metal films coated onto Z-cut congruent LiNbO3 substrates in wet O2 at 1060°C. The metal and oxide films have different thicknesses and coating sequences. After diffusion, the Zr4+ doping effect on the refractive index of LiNbO3 and the Li2O out-diffusion issue were studied by the prism coupling technique. The codiffusion characteristics of Zr4+ and Ti4+ were studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results show that the Zr4+ doping has little contribution to the refractive index of the crystal. Li2O out-diffusion is not measurable. In the Zr4+-only diffusion case, the diffusivity of Zr4+ is four times smaller than that of Ti4+. In the Zr4+/Ti4+ codiffusion case, the Ti4+ codiffusion assists the Zr4+ diffusion. The Zr4+ diffusivity increases linearly by two more times with the increase in initial Ti film thickness from 0 to 200 nm. On the other hand, the Zr4+ affects the Ti4+ diffusion little. Neither the ZrO2 film thickness nor the coating sequence of Ti metal and ZrO2 oxide films influences the diffusivity of the two ions. All the codiffusion characteristics are explained. A Zr4+/Ti4+ codiffusion model is suggested that consists of two independent diffusion equations with a Zr4+ diffusivity dependent of Ti4+ concentration and a constant Ti4+ diffusivity. In addition, the existence of a waveguide in the Zr4+/Ti4+-codoped layer is verified experimentally, and the optical-damage-resistant feature of the waveguide is verified by two-beam hologram recording experimental results.

Citation Format(s)

Zr4+/Ti4+ codiffusion characteristics in lithium niobate. / Zhang, De-Long; Qiu, Cong-Xian; Du, Wen-Jie et al.

In: Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 98, No. 2, 03.12.2014, p. 567-573.

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review