Fabricating Na/In/C Composite Anode with Natrophilic Na–In Alloy Enables Superior Na Ion Deposition in the EC/PC Electrolyte

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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  • Hui Wang
  • Ye Wang
  • Tingting Xu
  • Dezhi Kong
  • Yang Jiang
  • Di Wu
  • Yongbing Tang
  • Xinjian Li


Original languageEnglish
Article number23
Journal / PublicationNano-Micro Letters
Issue number1
Online published9 Dec 2021
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022



In conventional ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC) electrolyte, sodium metal reacts spontaneously and deleteriously with solvent molecules. This significantly limits the practical feasibility of high-voltage sodium metal batteries based on Na metal chemistry. Herein, we present a sodium metal alloy strategy via introducing NaIn and Na2In phases in a Na/In/C composite, aiming at boosting Na ion deposition stability in the common EC/PC electrolyte. Symmetric cells with Na/In/C electrodes achieve an impressive long-term cycling capability at 1 mA cm−2 (> 870 h) and 5 mA cm−2 (> 560 h), respectively, with a capacity of 1 mAh cm−2. In situ optical microscopy clearly unravels a stable Na ion dynamic deposition process on the Na/In/C composite electrode surface, attributing to a dendrite-free and smooth morphology. Furthermore, theoretical simulations reveal intrinsic mechanism for the reversible Na ion deposition behavior with the composite Na/In/C electrode. Upon pairing with a high-voltage NaVPOF cathode, Na/In/C anode illustrates a better suitability in SMBs. This work promises an alternative alloying strategy for enhancing Na metal interfacial stability in the common EC/PC electrolyte for their future applications.[Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Research Area(s)

  • Dendrite-free and smooth morphology, EC/PC electrolyte, Na/In/C electrode, Sodium metal batteries, Theoretical simulations

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