Aging Studies of PBGA Solder Joints Reflowed at Different Conveyor Speeds

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)486-492
Journal / PublicationIEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2001


In this paper, the shear cycle fatigue properties of plastic ball grid array (PBGA) assemblies' solder joints reflowed with three different profiles, and aged at 125°C for four, nine, 16, 25, and 36 days are studied. The profiles were devised to have the same "heating factor," which was defined as the integral of the measured temperature above the liquids (183°C) with respect to dwell time in the reflow profile, but to have different conveyor speeds. The effects of conveyor speed on the solder joint (nonaged and aged) fatigue lifetimes were investigated. It was found that with increasing the conveyor speed the solder joint shear fatigue lifetime could be improved substantially. Also, the shear fatigue lifetimes of aged solder joints decreased with increasing aging time and variation in fatigue lifetimes increased for faster conveyor speed. SEM and optical micrographs show that faster cooling rate caused a rougher interface of solder/IMC and less crystallization microstructure in solder joints. Rougher interface solder joints have a longer nonaged fatigue life. The thickness of IMC increases with increasing aging time and the growth rate for solder with faster cooling rate was larger. SEM cross section views reveal that cracks initiated at the acute position near the solder pad, then propagated along the interface of the bulk solder/IMC layer. Thicker IMC layers deteriorated fatigue life, so the fatigue lifetime variation of aged solder joints with fast cooling rate was larger.

Research Area(s)

  • Cooling rate, Cu-Sn intermetallics, intermetallic compound growth, plastic BGA, reliability, shear cycle fatigue life, solder joint