Growth and physiological responses of Kandelia candel and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza to livestock wastewater

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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  • Y. Ye
  • Nora F. Y. Tam


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)75-81
Journal / PublicationHydrobiologia
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2002


Growth and physiological responses of two mangrove species (Kandelia candel and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza) to livestock wastewater under two salinity conditions (seawater with salinity of 30p and freshwater) were examined in greenhouse pot-cultivation systems for 144 days. Wastewater treatment significantly enhanced growth of Kandelia candel and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza in terms of stem height, stem basal diameter, leaf production, maximum unit leaf area and relative growth rate. Wastewater discharges and salinity levels did not significantly change biomass partitioning of Kandelia candel, however, more biomass of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza was allocated to leaf due to wastewater discharges. In Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b increased with wastewater discharges but such increase was not observed in Kandelia candel. On the other hand, livestock wastewater increased leaf electric conductance in Kandelia candel but not in Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. The peroxidase activity in stem and root of Kandelia candel under both salinity conditions increased due to wastewater discharges, while the activity in root of the treated Bruguiera gymnorrhiza seedlings decreased under freshwater condition but increased at seawater salinity. The superoxide dismutase activity in treated Bruguiera gymnorrhiza decreased but did not show any significant change in Kandelia candel receiving livestock wastewater.

Research Area(s)

  • Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Kandelia candel, Livestock wastewater, Mangrove, Salinity