Off the Endangered List : Philippine Democratization in Comparative Perspective

Research output: Journal Publications and ReviewsRGC 21 - Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

34 Scopus Citations
View graph of relations



Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)197-205
Journal / PublicationComparative Politics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1996
Externally publishedYes


The new Philippine democracy has long been on the "most endangered" list. Ferdinand E. Marcos, a personalistic ruler representing no collective interests beyond his own regime, had been one of very few standpatter dictators during the wave of transitions to democratization initiated elsewhere by institutionalized authoritarian regimes. The need to overthrow Marcos' regime in order to democratize the Philippines led also to a struggle for power among military dissidents, Communist rebels, and disgruntled politicians. Concessions to the military hierarchy and limits on socioeconomic reform gradually undermined the disloyal opposition and allowed the restoration of pre-martial-law electoral rules. Since the failed coup of December 1989, there have been no significant armed challenges to the democratic regime, and the government of Fidel V. Ramos has been stable despite his narrow electoral victory.