A Consensus-based Distributed Temperature Priority Control of Air Conditioner Clusters for Voltage Regulation in Distribution Networks

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)290-301
Journal / PublicationIEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Issue number1
Online published24 Jun 2022
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023


High penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) to the distribution network may bring under-voltage and over-voltage issues, limiting the PV hosting capacity. Air conditioners (AC) in grid-interactive buildings can support voltage regulation by manipulating flexible energy consumption. This paper developed a novel voltage control strategy to regulate the AC clusters’ on/off states for distribution network voltage regulation under high PV penetrations. The novelty lies in the distributed formulation of temperature priority-based on/off control (TPC) of AC clusters and the strategic selection and permutation of demand response technologies, including the real-time optimal demand response resources dispatch, distributed sensing of ACs based on average consensus algorithm, and the local implementation of TPC strategy and trial calculation scheme for flexibility capacity estimation. Finally, the distributed TPC is validated to be effective for system rebalancing with no comfort violations and an acceptable ON/OFF switching frequency. The theoretical and numerical analysis also proves its scalability and robustness to communication delays and link failures. It is then incorporated into a novel hierarchical control framework for smart grid voltage control in a four-bus three-phase test grid, considering the voltage sensitivities to power injections in different locations and phases.

Research Area(s)

  • air conditioners, average consensus, Batteries, Consensus algorithm, distributed, distribution network, Distribution networks, hierarchical voltage control, HVAC, Regulation, Scalability, temperature priority control, Voltage control

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