Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

40 Scopus Citations
View graph of relations



Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)489-503
Journal / PublicationAstrophysical Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2008
Externally publishedYes


The interaction of accretion disks with the magnetospheres of young stars can produce X-winds and funnel flows. With the assumption of axial symmetry and steady state flow, the problem can be formulated in terms of quantities that are conserved along streamlines, such as the Bernoulli integral (BI), plus a partial differential equation (PDE), called the Grad-Shafranov equation (GSE), that governs the distribution of streamlines in the meridional plane. The GSE plus BI yields a PDE of mixed type, elliptic before critical surfaces where the flow speed equals certain characteristic wave speeds are crossed and hyperbolic afterward. The computational difficulties are exacerbated by the locations of the critical surfaces not being known in advance. To overcome diese obstacles, we consider a variational principle by which the GSE can be attacked by extremizing an action integral, with all other conserved quantities of the problem explicitly included as part of the overall formulation. To simplify actual applications we adopt die cold limit of a negligibly small ratio of the sound speed to the speed of Keplerian rotation in the disk where the X-wind is launched. We also ignore the obstructing effects of any magnetic fields that might thread a disk approximated to be infinitesimally thin. We then introduce trial functions with adjustable coefficients to minimize the variations that give the GSE. We tabulate the resulting coefficients so that other workers can have analytic forms to reconstruct X-wind solutions for various astronomical, cosmochemical, and meteoritical applications.

Research Area(s)

  • Accretion, accretion disks, ISM: jets and outflows, MHD, Stars: pre-main-sequence, Stars: winds, outflows

Citation Format(s)

X-WINDS IN ACTION. / CAI, Mike J.; SHANG, Hsien; LIN, Hsiao-Hsuan et al.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 672, No. 1, 01.01.2008, p. 489-503.

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review