Identification of metal–air batteries from water energy harvesters

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Original languageEnglish
Article numbere80
Journal / PublicationDroplet
Issue number4
Online published8 Aug 2023
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023



Capillary-enabled water energy harvesters (WEHs) are capable of generating direct-current electricity continuously. However, active-metal electrodes can introduce metal–air batteries in these WEHs. Given the nearly identical device structures and output characteristics of these two technologies, it is essential to distinguish between them. Herein, we present a systematic study of the water-activated metal–air battery (WMB) through theoretical analyses and experimental verifications. We conclude the general formation rules of the WMB from a material and device-structure perspective. Furthermore, we provide a comparative summary of various WEHs and WMBs for easy identification. We aim to improve the comprehension of metal–air batteries in the field of WEHs and assist in distinguishing between these technologies. © 2023 The Authors. Droplet published by Jilin University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

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