Cross-linked polyaniline for production of long lifespan aqueous iron||organic batteries with electrochromic properties

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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  • Haiming Lv
  • Cuiping Han
  • Xiaolong Yang
  • Zijie Tang
  • Yantu Zhang


Original languageEnglish
Article number3117
Journal / PublicationNature Communications
Online published30 May 2023
Publication statusPublished - 2023



Aqueous iron batteries are appealing candidates for large-scale energy storage due to their safety and low-cost aspects. However, the development of aqueous Fe batteries is hindered by their inadequate long-term cycling stability. Here, we propose the synthesis and application as positive electrode active material of cross-linked polyaniline (C-PANI). We use melamine as the crosslinker to improve the electronical conductivity and electrochemical stability of the C-PANI. Indeed, when the C-PANI is tested in combination with a Fe metal negative electrode and 1 M iron trifluoromethanesulfonate (Fe(TOF)2) electrolyte solution, the coin cell can deliver a specific capacity of about 110 mAh g−1 and an average discharge voltage of 0.55 V after 39,000 cycles at 25 A g−1 with a test temperature of 28 °C ± 1 °C. Furthermore, mechanistic studies suggest that Fe2+ ions are bonded to TOF anions to form positively charged complexes Fe(TOF)+, which are stored with protons in the C-PANI electrode structures. Finally, we also demonstrate the use of C-PANI in combination with a polymeric hydrogel electrolyte to produce a flexible reflective electrochromic lab-scale iron battery prototype. © 2023, The Author(s).

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