Environmental life cycle assessment of battery electric vehicles from the current and future energy mix perspective

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Original languageEnglish
Article number114050
Journal / PublicationJournal of Environmental Management
Online published3 Dec 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2022


Electric vehicles and renewable energy sources in transportation played a significant role in promoting sustainable transportation systems. The overall performance of the electric vehicle is highly dependent on the electricity mix consumed during their production and use phase. Therefore, a comprehensive and dynamic assessment is necessary to provide accurate guidance to users and policymakers. Therefore, this study presents a comparative cradle to grave life cycle analysis of electric vehicles in 10 selected countries using the current and future electricity mix scenarios. We present the environmental footprint of vehicle production, transportation, and use phases. The results revealed that EVs in China with current (2019) and future 2025 electricity mix scenarios had a higher impact than all other EVs. In contrast, EV with 2030 Norway electricity mix was an optimal choice and has the least environmental impact in most of the selected categories. Moreover, it was also found that all EVs with 2030 electricity mix had lower environmental damages than EV 2019 electricity mix. Besides, this study outcome indicated that the use of clean energy could help to decrease the environmental impact and mitigate climate change all around the globe.

Research Area(s)

  • Battery electric vehicle, Electricity mix, Life cycle assessment, Sustainable transportation