Is Symmetrical Communication Ethical and Effective

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)333-352
Journal / PublicationJournal of Business Ethics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2004
Externally publishedYes


The purpose of this paper is to explore two questions: (1) Is symmetrical communication in public relations practice inherently ethical (2) Does symmetrical communication contribute to public relations effectiveness and organizational effectiveness Three surveys are undertaken to test seven research hypotheses for the purpose of cross-validating research findings. The results suggest that symmetrical communication is inherently ethical. Moreover, symmetrical communication indeed contributes to several performance measures, which include positive market performance, overall organizational effectiveness, conflict resolution, crisis management, favorable organizational reputation, and positive media exposure, with the last two measures only partially supported.

Research Area(s)

  • ethical communication, organizational effectiveness, public relations, public relations effectiveness, symmetrical communication