This study explores key factors affecting flaming in virtual communities. Drawing on computer-mediated communication, socio-psychological, andorganizational management perspectives, the study develops and tests a research model that predicts an individual's flaming behavior and flaming restraints. Results of hierarchical regression analyses, based on a 300-person survey, show that regulated anonymity (institutional control) does not have any significant influence on the curbing of flaming. In contrast, technological controls (e.g., persistent labeling, deep profiling) and managerial control significantly inhibit individuals' flaming. Social identity increases flaming due to group conformity in the context of deindividuation. Personal traits (impulsive/temper tendencies) are also significant drivers of flaming. Notably, virtual community type (utilitarian vs. hedonic virtual communities) moderates the factors affecting flaming. © 2012 IEEE.