Empirical comparison of 3-D virtual world and face-to-face classroom for higher education

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

15 Scopus Citations
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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)30-49
Journal / PublicationJournal of Database Management
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2012
Externally publishedYes


Many higher education institutions have set up virtual classrooms in the 3-D virtual world. In this research, the authors assess the relative effectiveness of a 3-D virtual world learning environment, Second Life, compared to traditional face-to-face learning environment. They also assess the effects of instructional strategies in these two learning environments on interactivity, perceived learning, and satisfaction. The authors' findings suggest that learning environment interacts with instructional strategy to affect the learners' perceived learning and satisfaction. Specifically, when interactive instructional strategy is used, there is no significant difference for perceived learning and satisfaction between the 3-D virtual world and face-to-face learning environment. However, when a direct instructional strategy is used, there is a significant difference for perceived learning and satisfaction. They also assessed whether or not technology helps increase learner and instructor interaction. The result suggests that in interactive instructional sessions, students experienced a higher level of classroom interactivity in Second Life than in face-to-face classroom. Copyright © 2012, IGI Global.

Research Area(s)

  • 3-D virtual world, Classroom interactivity, Instructional strategies, Perceived ease of use, Perceived learning, Perceived usefulness, Second life, Social presence