Effect of Cooling Rate on the Isothermal Fatigue Behavior of CBGA Solder Joints in Shear

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10-16
Journal / PublicationIEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2001


This paper investigates the distribution characteristics of the isothermal fatigue lifetime of ceramic ball grid array (CBGA) solder joints in shear. Placement direction of the board-level assembly on the oven conveyor during reflow critically influences the fatigue lifetime of solder joints in shear: the front or outer solder joints have a longer shear lifetime than the rear or inner ones. The solder joints that moved diagonally during reflow have a longer fatigue lifetime and a tighter distribution. Cracks initiated in the eutectic solder region on the card and package side and tend to propagated in that region, while final failure occurred mainly on the card-said eutectic solder region. This phenomenon can be explained that the front or outer solder bumps have a resistant effect to the gas fluid which passes through the rear or inner solder bumps, and lower these solder joints' cooling rate during solification. Fast cooling rate can cause a more fine-grained and homogeneous microstructure in eutectic solder alloy, which can delay crack initiation and slow crack growth. When the board-level assembly moves diagonally during reflow, the resistant effect of front solder bumps to the gas fluid reduces markedly. So the fatigue lifetime of solder joints and its distribution characteristic enhance substantially. The theories of fluid dynamics and heat transmission are used to calculate the decrease of gas fluid velocity and the corresponding reduction of mean coefficient of heat transfer (hm).

Research Area(s)

  • Ceramic BGA, Cooling rate, Fatigue lifetime distribution, Shear cycle test, Solder joint reliability, Solidification