Temperature and cooling demand reduction by green-roof types in different climates and urban densities : A co-simulation parametric study

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)226-237
Journal / PublicationEnergy and Buildings
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2017


This paper presents a parametric study on the effect of four green-roof types on outdoor/indoor temperature and cooling demand under four different climates and three urban densities using co-simulation approach with ENVI-met and EnergyPlus. Results reveal an outdoor nighttime warming effect of not more than 0.2 °C which is most obvious with the semi-extensive while the outdoor and indoor cooling effect ranges between 0.05–0.6 °C and 0.4–1.4 °C, respectively depending on the green-roof type, urban density and time of the day. These daytime temperature reductions also vary per prevailing climates and follow this order: hot-dry, hot (or warm)-humid, and temperate which can be explained by the interplay between solar intensity/air temperature and relative humidity between the regions. In a hot-humid region, the evaporative cooling potential of greenery is dampened when compared to hot-dry region. This is also true for region with low solar intensity and humidity like the temperate region. In terms of cooling demand reduction, 5.2% was observed in hot-dry climate on the hottest day of the year with full-intensive green-roof while the least saving of 0.1% was found with semi-extensive green-roof in temperate climate. In general, for both outdoor temperature and cooling demand reduction, semi-intensive green-roof was found more effective than its full-extensive counterpart while the higher spatial green-roof is most important for indoor temperature reduction irrespective of the leaf density of the greenery. Therefore, the intent of green-roof installation should be a determining factor for the type and spatial extent to be implemented.

Research Area(s)

  • Climate zones, Co-simulation, Cooling demand, Cooling effect, Green-roofs, Urban densities

Citation Format(s)