Error-aware and energy-efficient routing approach in MANETs

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)37-51
Journal / PublicationInternational Journal of Communication Systems
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2009


The lifetime of a network is the key design, factor of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). To prolong the lifetime of MANETs, one is forced to attain a tradeoff of minimizing the energy consumption and load balancing. In MANETs, energy waste resulting from retransmission due to high bit error rate (BER) and high frame error rate (FER) of wireless channel is significant. In this paper, we propose two novel protocols termed multi-threshold routing protocol (MTRP) and enhanced multi-threshold routing protocol (EMTRP). MTRP divides the total energy of a wireless node into multiple ranges. The lower bound of each range corresponds to a threshold. The protocol iterates from the highest threshold to the lowest one and chooses those routes with bottleneck energy being larger than the current threshold during each iteration. This approach thus avoids overusing certain routes and achieves load balancing. If multiple routes satisfy the threshold constraint, MTRP selects a route with the smallest hop count to further attain energy efficiency. Based, on MTRP, EMTRP further takes channel condition into consideration and selects routes with better channel condition and consequently reduces the number of retransmissions and saves energy. We analyze the average loss probability (ALP) of the uniform error model and Gilbert error model and give a distributed algorithm to obtain the maximal ALP along a route. Descriptions of MTRP and EMTRP are given in pseudocode form. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed EMTRP outperforms the representative protocol CMMBCR in terms of total energy consumption and load balancing. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Research Area(s)

  • Energy-efficient routing, IEEE 802.11, Load balancing, Lossy link, MANET