Higher-order Rayleigh-quotient gradient effect on electron correlations

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Original languageEnglish
Article number134102
Journal / PublicationJournal of Chemical Physics
Issue number13
Online published4 Apr 2023
Publication statusPublished - 7 Apr 2023



The incomplete understanding of electron correlation is still profound due to the lack of exact solutions of the Schrödinger equation of many electron systems. In this work, we present the correlation-induced changes in the calculated many-electron systems beyond the standard residual. To locate the minimum of the Rayleigh quotient, each iteration is to seek the lowest eigenpairs in a subspace spanned by the current wave function and its gradient of the Rayleigh-quotient as well as the upcoming higher-order residual. Consequently, as the upcoming errors can be introduced and circumvented with the search in the higher-order residual, a concomitant improved performance in terms of number of iterations, convergence rate, and total elapsed time is very significant. The correlation energy components obtained with the original residual are corrected with the higher-order residual application, satisfying the correlation virial theorem with much improved accuracy. The comparison with the original residual, the higher-order residual significantly improves the electron binding, favoring the localization of electrons' distribution, revealed with the increasing peak of the distribution and correlation function and the reduced interelectron distance and its angle. © 2023 Author(s). Published under an exclusive license by AIP Publishing.

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