Influence of vapor transport equilibration on surface composition of MgO : LiNbO3 crystal

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)Q115-Q118
Journal / PublicationECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2015


The surface composition of 5 mol% (in growth melt) MgO-doped z-cut LiNbO3 crystal was modified using Li-poor vapor transport equilibration (VTE) process. The VTE-induced surface Li2O-content reduction ΔC was evaluated from the measured birefringence, and the ΔC dependence on VTE temperature T and time t were studied. The results show that the effect of T on ΔC follows the Arrhenius law, with a surface Li2O-content reduction constant of (1.3 ± 0.1) × 1011 mol% and an activation energy of 3.0 ± 0.1 eV, and the effect of t on ΔC is a square-root dependence, with ΔC = 0.17t0.51. Thus, a generalized empirical expression can be obtained to show the dependence of ΔC on T and t. A comparative study on undoped pure LN shows that the MgO doping has slight effect on ΔC. Based on the obtained dependence of ΔC on t, the solution to the Li+ out-diffusion equation is shown and verified experimentally to be an integral of complimentary error function. The results indicate that Li-deficientMgO-doped LiNbO3 material with desired surface Li2O-content can be produced by controlling the VTE temperature and duration.

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