As a new type of energy-storage devices, lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) are designed to deliver high energy densities, high power densities, and long lifespan by integrating the battery-type anodes and capacitor-type cathodes. Achieving high energy and power density simultaneously is the challenge of LICs, which is mainly determined by the cathode and anode materials. In this mini-review, basing on the working principles of LICs, we discuss the categories and electrochemical performance as well as the matching strategies of the cathodes and anodes. In anodes, we focus on summarizing the structural design of the prelithiation transition-metal compounds based materials. In cathodes, we emphasize discussing the fabrication and morphology adjustment of the low dimensional carbon materials. Finally, the prospects and challenges confronting future research and development of LICs are provided.