Programmable optical meta-holograms

Research output: Journal Publications and ReviewsRGC 21 - Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

4 Scopus Citations
View graph of relations


Original languageEnglish
Journal / PublicationNanophotonics
Online published2 Oct 2023
Publication statusOnline published - 2 Oct 2023


The metaverse has captured significant attention as it provides a virtual realm that cannot be experienced in the physical world. Programmable optical holograms, integral components of the metaverse, allow users to access diverse information without needing external equipment. Meta-devices composed of artificially customized nano-antennas are excellent candidates for programmable optical holograms due to their compact footprint and flexible electromagnetic manipulation. Programmable optical meta-holograms can dynamically alter reconstructed images in real-time by directly modulating the optical properties of the metasurface or by modifying the incident light. Information can be encoded across multiple channels and freely selected through switchable functionality. These advantages will broaden the range of virtual scenarios in the metaverse, facilitating further development and practical applications. This review concentrates on recent advancements in the fundamentals and applications of programmable optical meta-holograms. We aim to provide readers with general knowledge and potential inspiration for applying programmable optical meta-holograms, both intrinsic and external ways, into the metaverse for better performance. An outlook and perspective on the challenges and prospects in these rapidly growing research areas are provided. © 2023 the author(s), published by De Gruyter.

Research Area(s)

  • metasurface, meta-device, meta-hologram, programmable optical meta-hologram

Citation Format(s)

Programmable optical meta-holograms. / Zhang, Jing Cheng; Fan, Yubin; Yao, Jin et al.
In: Nanophotonics, 02.10.2023.

Research output: Journal Publications and ReviewsRGC 21 - Publication in refereed journalpeer-review