Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), an emerging type of porous crystalline materials, have received increasing attention in recent years due to their compositional, structural and chemical versatility. Moreover, great progress has been made in the fundamental study and technological development of two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene and metal dichalcogenide nanosheets, which exhibit a number of unique and attractive properties for wide applications. Recently, the smart integration of the aforementioned two types of functional materials, i.e. MOFs and 2D materials, has led to improved performance in molecular absorption, separation and storage, and shown promise in selective catalysis and biosensing. This feature article aims at providing a brief introduction to the composites composed of MOFs and 2D materials, focusing mainly on their preparation methods and applications. Finally, technical challenges and future opportunities in this field will also be discussed.