Post-migration Growth Scale for Chinese International Students : Development and Validation

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1639-1655
Journal / PublicationJournal of Happiness Studies
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2013


There has been a significant paradigm shift in recent acculturation research from a psychopathological perspective to a resilience framework. However, one indicator of positive adaptation outcomes in acculturation-measurement of personal growth in migration-is lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a Post-migration Growth Scale (PMGS) for Chinese international students. A 14-item scale was developed through in-depth interviews, item analysis and factor analysis. The scale was initially validated in a sample of 400 mainland Chinese students studying in Hong Kong. Exploratory factor analysis suggested two factors (interpersonal growth and intrapersonal growth), which were cross-validated in an independent sample of Chinese international students in Australia from mainland China (n = 154) by confirmatory factor analysis. The PMGS showed satisfactory internal consistency reliability and concurrent validity. The PMGS can thus be a reliable and valid instrument to measure Chinese international students' personal growth from overseas study experiences. Limitations were discussed and implications were suggested. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Research Area(s)

  • Chinese, International students, Post-migration growth, Resilience, Scale development, Scale validation