Phthalate esters in seawater and sediment of the northern South China Sea : Occurrence, distribution, and ecological risks

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Detail(s)

Original languageEnglish
Article number151412
Number of pages11
Journal / PublicationScience of the Total Environment
Volume811
Online published4 Nov 2021
Publication statusPublished - 10 Mar 2022

Abstract

In this study, the occurrence and distribution of 15 phthalate esters (PAEs) in seawater and sediment from the northern South China Sea (NSCS) were investigated for the first time to improve understanding on the contamination status of PAEs in this region. The concentrations of total PAEs (∑15 PAEs) were found to range from 68.8 to 1500 ng/L, 46.0 to 7800 ng/L, and 49.2 to 440 ng/g dry weight in surface seawater, bottom seawater, and sediment, respectively. Among the 15 PAEs, dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were the predominant PAE congeners, with mean contributions of 44.7% and 24.0% in surface water, and 42.7% and 25.8% in bottom water, respectively. Moreover, diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) constituted the majority of ∑15 PAEs in the sediment (61.3%). Comparatively high concentrations of Σ15 PAEs were observed in seawater at the sites within the western NSCS, whereas relatively higher concentrations of Σ15 PAEs were detected in sediments at the eastern NSCS. River input and atmospheric deposition could be the main sources of PAEs in the NSCS. Preliminary risk assessment implied that DBP, DiBP, and DEHP posed low to high potential risks for marine organisms at different trophic levels. These results would be valuable for implementing effective control measures and remediation strategies for PAEs contamination in the region.

Research Area(s)

  • Hazard quotients, Phthalate esters, Risk assessment, South China Sea

Citation Format(s)

Phthalate esters in seawater and sediment of the northern South China Sea : Occurrence, distribution, and ecological risks. / Cao, Yaru; Li, Jing; Wu, Rongben; Lin, Huiju; Lao, Jia-Yong; Ruan, Yuefei; Zhang, Kai; Wu, Jiaxue; Leung, Kenneth M.Y.; Lam, Paul K.S.

In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 811, 151412, 10.03.2022.

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review