Phase segregation, interfacial intermetallic growth and electromigration-induced failure in Cu/In-48Sn/Cu solder interconnects under current stressing

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journal

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Author(s)

  • Yi Li
  • Adeline B.Y. Lim
  • Kaiming Luo
  • Zhong Chen
  • Fengshun Wu

Related Research Unit(s)

Detail(s)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)372-382
Journal / PublicationJournal of Alloys and Compounds
Volume673
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jul 2016

Abstract

The evolution of microstructure in Cu/In-48Sn/Cu solder bump interconnects at a current density of 0.7 × 104 A/cm2 and ambient temperature of 55 °C has been investigated. During electromigration, tin (Sn) atoms migrated from cathode to anode, while indium (In) atoms migrated from anode to cathode. As a result, the segregation of the Sn-rich phase and the In-rich phase occurred. A Sn-rich layer and an In-rich layer were formed at the anode and the cathode, respectively. The accumulation rate of the Sn-rich layer was 1.98 × 10-9 cm/s. The atomic flux of Sn was calculated to be approximately 1.83 × 1013 atoms/cm2s. The product of the diffusivity and the effective charge number of Sn was determined to be approximately 3.13 × 10-10 cm2/s. The In-48Sn/Cu IMC showed a two layer structure of Cu6(Sn,In)5, adjacent to the Cu, and Cu(In,Sn)2, adjacent to the solder. Both the cathode IMC and the anode IMC thickened with increasing electromigration time. The IMC evolution during electromigration was strongly influenced by the migration of Cu atoms from cathode to anode and the accumulation of Sn-rich and In-rich layers. During electromigration, the Cu(In,Sn)2 at the cathode interface thickened significantly, with a spalling characteristic, due to the accumulation of In-rich layer and the migration of Cu atoms - while the Cu(In,Sn)2 at the anode interface reduced obviously, due to the accumulation of Sn-rich layer. The mechanism of electromigration-induced failure in Cu/In-48Sn/Cu interconnects was the cathode Cu dissolution-induced solder melt, which led to the rapid consumption of Cu in the cathode pad during liquid-state electromigration and this finally led to the failure.

Research Area(s)

  • Electromigration, Failure mechanism, In-48Sn solder, Intermetallic compound, Phase segregation

Citation Format(s)

Phase segregation, interfacial intermetallic growth and electromigration-induced failure in Cu/In-48Sn/Cu solder interconnects under current stressing. / Li, Yi; Lim, Adeline B.Y.; Luo, Kaiming; Chen, Zhong; Wu, Fengshun; Chan, Y. C.

In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 673, 15.07.2016, p. 372-382.

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journal