Perspective on hetero-deformation induced (HDI) hardening and back stress

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)393-398
Journal / PublicationMaterials Research Letters
Issue number10
Online published29 May 2019
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes



Heterostructured materials have been reported as a new class of materials with superior mechanical properties, which was attributed to the development of back stress. There are numerous reports on back stress theories and measurements with no consensus. Back stress is developed in soft domains to offset the applied stress, making them appear stronger, while forward stress is developed to make hard domains appear weaker. The extra hardening in heterostructured materials is resulted from interactions between back stresses and forward stresses, and should be described as hetero-deformation induced (HDI) hardening and the measured ‘back stress’ should be renamed HDI stress.

Research Area(s)

  • back-stress, forward stress, hetero-deformation induced (HDI) hardening, Heterostructured materials, strain gradient

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