Partial Sequence Labeling With Structured Gaussian Processes

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2783-2792
Number of pages10
Journal / PublicationIEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Issue number2
Online published25 Jul 2022
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024


Existing partial sequence labeling models mainly focus on a max-margin framework that fails to provide an uncertainty estimation of the prediction. Furthermore, the unique ground-truth disambiguation strategy employed by these models may include wrong label information for parameter learning. In this article, we propose structured Gaussian processes for partial sequence labeling (SGPPSL), which encodes uncertainty in the prediction and does not need extra effort for model selection and hyperparameter learning. The model employs factor-as-piece approximation that divides the linear-chain graph structure into the set of pieces, which preserves the basic Markov random field structure and effectively avoids handling a large number of candidate output sequences generated by partially annotated data. Then, confidence measure is introduced in the model to address different contributions of candidate labels, which enables the ground-truth label information to be utilized in parameter learning. Based on the derived lower bound of the variational lower bound of the proposed model, variational parameters and confidence measures are estimated in the framework of alternating optimization. Moreover, a weighted Viterbi algorithm is proposed to incorporate confidence measures to sequence prediction, which considers label ambiguity arose from multiple annotations in the training data and thus helps improve the performance. SGPPSL is evaluated on several sequence labeling tasks and the experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed model.

Research Area(s)

  • Labeling, Predictive models, Hidden Markov models, Annotations, Data models, Computational modeling, Uncertainty, Partial sequence labeling, structured Gaussian processes (GPs), variational lower bound, weighted Viterbi