Orthonormal product quantization network for scalable face image retrieval

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Original languageEnglish
Article number109671
Journal / PublicationPattern Recognition
Online published2 May 2023
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023


Existing deep quantization methods provided an efficient solution for large-scale image retrieval. However, the significant intra-class variations, like pose, illumination, and expressions in face images, still pose a challenge. In light of this, face image retrieval requires sufficiently powerful learning metrics, which are absent in current deep quantization works. Moreover, to tackle the growing unseen identities in the query stage, face image retrieval drives more demands regarding model generalization and scalability than general image retrieval tasks. This paper integrates product quantization with orthonormal constraints into an end-to-end deep learning framework to effectively retrieve face images. Specifically, we propose a novel scheme that uses predefined orthonormal vectors as codewords to enhance the quantization informativeness and reduce codewords’ redundancy. A tailored loss function maximizes discriminability among identities in each quantization subspace for both the quantized and original features. An entropy-based regularization term is imposed to reduce the quantization error. Experiments are conducted on four commonly-used face datasets under both seen and unseen identity retrieval settings. Our method outperforms all the compared state-of-the-art under both settings. The proposed orthonormal codewords consistently boost both models’ standard retrieval performance and generalization ability, demonstrating the superiority of our method for scalable face image retrieval. © 2023 Elsevier Ltd.

Research Area(s)

  • Convolutional neural networks, Face image retrieval, Orthonormal codewords, Product quantization