Morale in Relation to Caring and Social Exclusion in Society

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journal

2 Scopus Citations
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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)471-490
Journal / PublicationSocial Indicators Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2013


Morale, as a future-oriented indicator of well-being, is susceptible to caring and social exclusion in society, with respect to social integration theory. The influences of caring and social exclusion perceived in society merit the concern of the present study. In addition, the study explores personal background characteristics as conditions for moderating the influences. A telephone survey of 1,526 adults in Hong Kong in China provided data for the study. Results demonstrated the main effects of caring and social exclusion perceived in society on morale and conditions that moderated the effects. The strongest condition is age, such that social exclusion was particularly demoralizing to the older person. In contrast, the person's wealth did not have a main effect on morale. Results therefore favor the idealist explanation rather than materialist explanation for morale. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Research Area(s)

  • Caring, Civility, Congruence, Morale, Need fulfillment, Pile-up stress, Relative deprivation, Social exclusion, Well-being