TY - JOUR
T1 - Microwave emission of rough ocean surfaces with full spatial spectrum based on the multilevel expansion method
AU - Li, Shu-Qing
AU - Chan, Chi Hou
AU - Tsang, Leung
AU - Zhou, Lin
PY - 2002/3
Y1 - 2002/3
N2 - Microwave emission of ocean surfaces with full spatial spectrum is studied in this paper. For ocean surfaces with full spectrum, the rms height of roughness can be many wavelengths, and the surface size must be chosen to be larger than the longest scale wave in the spectrum. Due to computer resources, it is not straightforward to conduct numerical simulations of emission from rough surfaces with large rms height and size since a large number of unknowns will be involved. In this paper, the multilevel expansion of the sparse matrix canonical grid (SMCG) method, which is available for surfaces with large rms heights, is used to study the emission of one-dimensional (1-D) ocean surfaces. The computational complexity and the memory requirement are still in the order of O(N log(N)) and O(N), respectively, as in the SMCG method. Ocean surfaces with size 1024 wavelengths (21.9 m at 14 GHz) and spatial spectrum bandwidth between 0.858 rads/m (corresponding to the longest scale of 341.3 wavelengths) and 4691.5 rads/m (corresponding to the shortest scale of 1/16 wavelengths), which is rather wide to be regarded as a full spectrum, are studied. The maximum of the electromagnetic wavenumber-surface rms height product is up to 25.18. The surface is modeled as a lossy dielectric surface with large relative permittivity rather than as a perfectly conducting surface, which is often adopted as an approximation in the active remote sensing of ocean surfaces. A relatively high sampling density is used to ensure accuracy. The effects of the low and high portions of the spectrum on the emissivity are studied numerically. Monte Carlo simulation for ocean surfaces is also performed by exploiting the efficiency of the multilevel expansion method and the use of parallel computing techniques. The convergence of the results with respect to the sampling density is also illustrated.
AB - Microwave emission of ocean surfaces with full spatial spectrum is studied in this paper. For ocean surfaces with full spectrum, the rms height of roughness can be many wavelengths, and the surface size must be chosen to be larger than the longest scale wave in the spectrum. Due to computer resources, it is not straightforward to conduct numerical simulations of emission from rough surfaces with large rms height and size since a large number of unknowns will be involved. In this paper, the multilevel expansion of the sparse matrix canonical grid (SMCG) method, which is available for surfaces with large rms heights, is used to study the emission of one-dimensional (1-D) ocean surfaces. The computational complexity and the memory requirement are still in the order of O(N log(N)) and O(N), respectively, as in the SMCG method. Ocean surfaces with size 1024 wavelengths (21.9 m at 14 GHz) and spatial spectrum bandwidth between 0.858 rads/m (corresponding to the longest scale of 341.3 wavelengths) and 4691.5 rads/m (corresponding to the shortest scale of 1/16 wavelengths), which is rather wide to be regarded as a full spectrum, are studied. The maximum of the electromagnetic wavenumber-surface rms height product is up to 25.18. The surface is modeled as a lossy dielectric surface with large relative permittivity rather than as a perfectly conducting surface, which is often adopted as an approximation in the active remote sensing of ocean surfaces. A relatively high sampling density is used to ensure accuracy. The effects of the low and high portions of the spectrum on the emissivity are studied numerically. Monte Carlo simulation for ocean surfaces is also performed by exploiting the efficiency of the multilevel expansion method and the use of parallel computing techniques. The convergence of the results with respect to the sampling density is also illustrated.
KW - Durden-Vesecky spectrum
KW - Multilevel expansion method
KW - Ocean surfaces
UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0036508373&partnerID=8YFLogxK
UR - https://www.scopus.com/record/pubmetrics.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0036508373&origin=recordpage
U2 - 10.1109/TGRS.2002.1000317
DO - 10.1109/TGRS.2002.1000317
M3 - 21_Publication in refereed journal
VL - 40
SP - 574
EP - 582
JO - IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
JF - IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
SN - 0196-2892
IS - 3
ER -