Mapping out BIM Contract Conditions by Way of a Comparative Study

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Original languageEnglish
Article number05020017
Number of pages9
Journal / PublicationJournal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction
Issue number1
Online published9 Nov 2020
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021


The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) government has actively promoted the use of building information modeling (BIM) in its major capital projects. In Hong Kong, BIM is relatively new to employers, consultants, contractors, and subcontractors. They are concerned with risks and liabilities arising from the adoption of BIM. Proper contract conditions that set out the obligations, responsibilities, and liabilities of contracting parties are essential for successful implementation of BIM. In responding to this industrial need, the author has prepared standard BIM contract conditions for use in Hong Kong. The aim is to map out the Hong Kong BIM Contract Conditions by comparing with solutions adopted by the UK's CIC BIM Protocol and the US's AIA BIM and Digital Data Exhibit. The methodology consists of three discrete steps: (1) identification of key contractual issues, (2) analysis of solutions adopted in the US and UK and their suitability to local industry, and (3) mapping out solutions for Hong Kong. This study contributes to a body of knowledge in comparative studies of BIM contractual issues. While the BIM Contract Conditions are primarily designed for Hong Kong, they are equally suitable for other countries at a similar stage of BIM development. Therefore, this study also contributes to good professional practices for countries without BIM contract conditions.

Research Area(s)

  • Building information modeling (BIM), Contract conditions, Hong Kong