Loss of M2 muscarinic receptor function inhibits development of hypoxic bradycardia and alters cardiac β-adrenergic sensitivity in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journal

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Author(s)

  • Shelby L. Steele
  • Kwok Hong Andy Lo
  • Marc Ekker
  • Steve F. Perry

Detail(s)

Original languageEnglish
Journal / PublicationAmerican Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Volume297
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2009

Abstract

Fish exposed to hypoxia develop decreased heart rate, or bradycardia, the physiological significance of which remains unknown. The general muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine abolishes the development of this hypoxic bradycardia, suggesting the involvement of muscarinic receptors. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the hypoxic bradycardia is mediated specifically by stimulation of the M2 muscarinic receptor, the most abundant subtype in the vertebrate heart. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were reared at two levels of hypoxia (30 and 40 Torr PO2) from the point of fertilization. In hypoxic fish, the heart rate was significantly lower than in normoxic controls from 2 to 10 days postfertilization (dpf). At the more severe level of hypoxia (30 Torr PO2), there were significant increases in the relative mRNA expression of M2 and the cardiac type β-adrenergic receptors (β1AR, β2aAR, and β2bAR) at 4 dpf. The hypoxic bradycardia was abolished (at 40 Torr PO2) or significantly attenuated (at 30 Torr PO2) in larvae experiencing M2 receptor knockdown (using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides). Sham-injected larvae exhibited typical hypoxic bradycardia in both hypoxic regimens. The expression of β1AR, β2aAR, β2bAR, and M2 mRNA was altered at various stages between 1 and 4 dpf in larvae experiencing M2 receptor knockdown. Interestingly, M2 receptor knockdown revealed a cardioinhibitory role for the β2-adrenergic receptor. This is the first study to demonstrate a specific role of the M 2 muscarinic receptor in the initiation of hypoxic bradycardia in fish. Copyright © 2009 the American Physiological Society.

Research Area(s)

  • Cardiovascular function, Heart rate, Knockdown, Morpholino

Citation Format(s)

Loss of M2 muscarinic receptor function inhibits development of hypoxic bradycardia and alters cardiac β-adrenergic sensitivity in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio). / Steele, Shelby L.; Lo, Kwok Hong Andy; Li, Vincent Wai Tsun; Cheng, Shuk Han; Ekker, Marc; Perry, Steve F.

In: American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, Vol. 297, No. 2, 08.2009.

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journal