Interfacial reactions of Sn-3.5% Ag and Sn-3.5% Ag-0.5% Cu solder with electroless Ni/Au metallization during multiple reflow cycles

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)153-158
Journal / PublicationJournal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2005


The increasing industry awareness of lead-free activities has prompted original equipment manufacturers and suppliers to investigate lead-free solder systems in detail. The reliability of lead-free solders has been studied a lot recently, but the knowledge of it is still incomplete and many issues related to them are under heavy debate. In this study, the interfacial reactions of Sn-3.5Ag and Sn-3.5Ag-0.5Cu (wt.%) solders with Cu/Ni(P)/Au ball grid array (BGA) pad metallization were systematically investigated after multiple reflows. The peak reflow temperature was fixed at 260°C. It was found that relatively high consumption of Ni(P) was observed in the case of Sn-3.5%Ag solder alloys during multiple reflow cycles. A white layer of P rich Ni-Sn compound was observed above the dark Ni3P layer for Sn-3.5%Ag solder after several reflows. It was noticed that the mean thickness of the intermetallics and the dark P-rich Ni layer at the interface was decreased just by adding 0.5% Cu in Sn-3.5%Ag solder alloy with less overall interfacial reaction at the solder joint. © 2005 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.

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