Interfacial microstructure and hardness of nickel (Ni) nanoparticle-doped tin-silver-copper (Sn-Ag-Cu) solders on immersion silver (Ag)-plated copper (Cu) substrates

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4012-4023
Journal / PublicationJournal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics
Volume25
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2014

Abstract

Sn-Ag-Cu composite solder has been prepared by adding Ni nanoparticles. Interfacial reactions, the morphology of the intermetallic compounds (IMC) that were formed, the hardness between the solder joints and the plain Cu/immersion Ag-plated Cu pads depending on the number of the reflow cycles and the aging time have all been investigated. A scallop-shaped Cu6Sn5 IMC layer that adhered to the substrate surface was formed at the interfaces of the plain Sn-Ag-Cu solder joints during the early reflow cycles. A very thin Cu3Sn IMC layer was found between the Cu6Sn5 IMC layer and the substrates after a lengthy reflow cycle and solid-state aging process. However, after adding Ni nanoparticles, a scallop-shaped (Cu, Ni)-Sn IMC layer was clearly observed at both of the substrate surfaces, without any Cu3Sn IMC layer formation. Needle-shaped Ag3Sn and sphere-shaped Cu6Sn5 IMC particles were clearly observed in the β-Sn matrix in the solder-ball region of the plain Sn-Ag-Cu solder joints. Additional fine (Cu, Ni)-Sn IMC particles were found to be homogeneously distributed in the β-Sn matrix of the solder joints containing the Ni nanoparticles. The Sn-Ag-Cu-0.5Ni composite solder joints consistently displayed higher hardness values than the plain Sn-Ag-Cu solder joints for any specific number of reflow cycles-on both substrates-due to their well-controlled, fine network-type microstructures and the homogeneous distribution of fine (Cu, Ni)-Sn IMC particles, which acted as second-phase strengthening mechanisms. The hardness values of Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Ag-Cu-0.5Ni on the Cu substrates after one reflow cycle were about 15.1 and 16.6 Hv, respectively-and about 12.2 and 14.4 Hv after sixteen reflow cycles, respectively. However, the hardness values of the plain Sn-Ag-Cu solder joint and solder joint containing 0.5 wt% Ni nanoparticles after one reflow cycle on the immersion Ag plated Cu substrates were about 17.7 and 18.7 Hv, respectively, and about 13.2 and 15.3 Hv after sixteen reflow cycles, respectively. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Citation Format(s)

Interfacial microstructure and hardness of nickel (Ni) nanoparticle-doped tin-silver-copper (Sn-Ag-Cu) solders on immersion silver (Ag)-plated copper (Cu) substrates. / Fouzder, Tama; Li, Qingqian; Chan, Y. C.; Chan, Daniel K.

In: Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, Vol. 25, No. 9, 09.2014, p. 4012-4023.

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review