Increasing mortar strength with the use of activated kaolin by-products from paper industry

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journal

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1537-1545
Journal / PublicationConstruction and Building Materials
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2011


Making use of industrial by-product or waste clay to partially replace cement in concrete has greatly contributed to sustainable development of environment. This study investigated the optimal activation condition for producing high reactivity metakaolin (MK) by using kaolin by-products (KB) from paper industry. Initially, the material properties of KB were analyzed in this study and the results indicated its great potential to be treated by calcination to be a very effective pozzolan. Afterwards, MK samples produced from different activation treatments of KB, including different calcining temperature, calcining duration, initial temperature rise rime and grinding particle size, were applied in mortar to determine their pozzolanic effect. Results indicated that the optimal activation condition for KB to high reactivity MK conversion is 2-h calcining duration at 750 °C and with 7 μm grinding particle size. Finally, compressive and flexural strengths of mortar samples produced by replacing cement with 0-25% MK content were tested and the results showed that 15% was the optimal cement replacement level of MK and the mortar so produced exhibited 20% improvement in compressive strength compared to control mortar. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Research Area(s)

  • High reactivity metakaolin, Kaolin by-products, Optimal activation condition