Ghost imaging second harmonic generation microscopy

Research output: Journal Publications and ReviewsRGC 21 - Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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  • Sushovit Adhikari
  • Cristian L. Cortes
  • David J. Gosztola
  • Stephen K. Gray
  • Gary P. Wiederrecht


Original languageEnglish
Article number191101
Journal / PublicationApplied Physics Letters
Issue number19
Online published11 May 2020
Publication statusPublished - 11 May 2020
Externally publishedYes


Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy is useful for visualizing interfaces and sub-structures within a wide range of materials due to the propensity for SHG to occur in non-centrosymmetric environments. However, since SHG is a nonlinear process generally necessitating small focal sizes for higher peak powers, a raster scanning approach is usually needed to build an SHG image over a significant sample size. While raster scanning is effective, there is a cost in terms of the time needed to acquire the image and, also, some materials cannot withstand the higher optical intensities within the small focal volume. In order to address this, we describe a SHG microscopy approach based on ghost imaging (GI), which enables imaging data to be collected in parallel rather than sequentially as in raster scanning techniques. We experimentally demonstrate the approach and combine GI-SHG with compressive sensing to make further substantial gains in reducing the amount of sampling required for image reconstruction. Furthermore, GI-SHG is shown to have significant advantages for imaging in highly scattering environments, partly because GI is a background-free approach requiring spatial correlations between photons that travel two paths, with one path entirely devoid of sample interaction. This basic property of GI means that only the photons that travel unimpeded through the sample preserve the spatial correlations needed to reconstruct the image, while more scattered photons do not contribute to the overall GI signal. Finally, we compare the image quality and sampling properties of three different reconstruction algorithms used for compressive sensing.

Citation Format(s)

Ghost imaging second harmonic generation microscopy. / Wen, Xiewen; Adhikari, Sushovit; Cortes, Cristian L. et al.
In: Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 116, No. 19, 191101, 11.05.2020.

Research output: Journal Publications and ReviewsRGC 21 - Publication in refereed journalpeer-review