Further Insight into Extractable (Organo)fluorine Mass Balance Analysis of Tap Water from Shanghai, China

Research output: Journal Publications and ReviewsRGC 21 - Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Author(s)

  • Enmiao Jiao
  • Pontus Larsson
  • Zhiliang Zhu
  • Daqiang Yin
  • Anna Kärrman
  • Patrick van Hees
  • Patrik Karlsson
  • Yanling Qiu
  • Leo W. Y. Yeung

Detail(s)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14330-14339
Journal / PublicationEnvironmental Science & Technology
Volume57
Issue number38
Online published15 Sept 2023
Publication statusPublished - 26 Sept 2023

Link(s)

Abstract

The ubiquitous occurrence of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and the detection of unexplained extractable organofluorine (EOF) in drinking water have raised growing concerns. A recent study reported the detection of inorganic fluorinated anions in German river systems, and therefore, in some samples, EOF may include some inorganic fluorinated anions. Thus, it might be more appropriate to use the term “extractable fluorine (EF) analysis” instead of the term EOF analysis. In this study, tap water samples (n = 39) from Shanghai were collected to assess the levels of EF/EOF, 35 target PFAS, two inorganic fluorinated anions (tetrafluoroborate (BF4-) and hexafluorophosphate (PF6-)), and novel PFAS through suspect screening and potential oxidizable precursors through oxidative conversion. The results showed that ultra-short PFAS were the largest contributors to target PFAS, accounting for up to 97% of ΣPFAS. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first time that bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (NTf2) was reported in drinking water from China, and p-perfluorous nonenoxybenzenesulfonate (OBS) was also identified through suspect screening. Small amounts of precursors that can be oxidatively converted to PFCAs were noted after oxidative conversion. EF mass balance analysis revealed that target PFAS could only explain less than 36% of EF. However, the amounts of unexplained extractable fluorine were greatly reduced when BF4- and PF6- were included. These compounds further explained more than 44% of the EF, indicating the role of inorganic fluorinated anions in the mass balance analysis. © 2023 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.

Research Area(s)

  • bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (NTf2), extractable fluorine (EF), hexafluorophosphate (PF6−), suspect screening, tetrafluoroborate (BF4−), ultra-short PFAS

Citation Format(s)

Further Insight into Extractable (Organo)fluorine Mass Balance Analysis of Tap Water from Shanghai, China. / Jiao, Enmiao; Larsson, Pontus; Wang, Qi et al.
In: Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 57, No. 38, 26.09.2023, p. 14330-14339.

Research output: Journal Publications and ReviewsRGC 21 - Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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