Anatase TiO2 prepared by an aqueous sol-gel process at 60°C was applied to polyester fibers that were treated with low-temperature plasma. This process not only functionalizes polyester but also enhances its adhesion to the anatase. The self-cleaning properties, such as bactericidal activities, colorant decomposition, and degradation of red wine and coffee stains, of the anatase functionalized polyester fibers were studied. The surface morphological changes of polyester fibers before and after plasma treatment, and of plasma-treated fibers before and after anatase coating were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The adhesion between the anatase TiO2 and polyester fibers was investigated. © 2007 The American Ceramic Society.