FROZEN! Intracellular multi-electrolyte analysis measures millimolar lithium in mammalian cells

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Detail(s)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5186–5197
Number of pages12
Journal / PublicationAnalyst
Volume146
Issue number16
Online published2 Jul 2021
Publication statusPublished - 21 Aug 2021

Abstract

Lithium salts are commonly used as medication for Bipolar Disorder (BD) and depression. However, there are limited methods to quantify intracellular lithium. Most methods to analyze intracellular electrolytes require tedious sample processing, specialized and often expensive machinery, sometimes involving harmful chemicals, and a bulk amount of sample. In this work, we report a novel method (FROZEN!) based on cell isolation (from surrounding medium) through rapid de-ionized water cleaning, followed by flash freezing for preservation. SKOV3 cells were cultured in normal medium and medium containing 1.0 mM lithium. Lithium, and other intracellular electrolytes, in the isolated and preserved cells were simultaneously analyzed with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). Key electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, and magnesium, along with lithium, were detectable at the single-cell level. We found that cells cultured in lithium medium have an intracellular lithium concentration of 0.5 mM. Concurrently, the intracellular concentrations of other positively charged electrolytes (sodium, potassium, magnesium) were reduced by the presence of lithium. FROZEN! will greatly facilitate research into intracellular electrolyte balance during drug treatment, or other physiological stresses. In particular, the cell isolation and preservation steps can be easily performed by many laboratories worldwide, after which the samples are sent to an analytical laboratory for electrolyte analysis.

Citation Format(s)

FROZEN! Intracellular multi-electrolyte analysis measures millimolar lithium in mammalian cells. / Gunawan, Renardi; Imran, Al; Ahmed, Irfan et al.
In: Analyst, Vol. 146, No. 16, 21.08.2021, p. 5186–5197.

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review