According to New Social Movement (NSM) theories, in the era of post-industrial economy, movement activists are fighting for their human rights under the recognized collective identity, rather than fighting for economic well-being under the ideology of working class. However, in the context in Hong Kong, social movements, at least part of, are not as the same as NSM theory supposes. The current study is focused on the Anti-National Education Protest in the year 2011 to 2012. The case was a student movement against the Moral and National Education (MNE) program which was proposed by the Hong Kong government. In October 2012, the government had to permanently suspend the MNE program. In the movement, the students were not mobilized by the identity-based frames “Chinese Identity”, but the political ideology-based frame “Brainwashing”. Based on framing analysis and interviews, the current study explores the conditions on which an ideology-based frame would overwhelm an identity-based frame in new social movements. Also, we analyze how the newly born student organization mobilized its constituents via social media. We examine how they won the framing contest against the internal oppositional fractions, the mainstream media and the government at the different stages of the movement. We discuss the implications of this case on the dedicated relationship between the post-colonial Hong Kong and authoritarian Beijing.