TY - JOUR
T1 - Fast prediction of electromigration lifetime with modified mean-time-to-failure equation
AU - Liu, Yingxia
AU - Gusak, Andriy
AU - Jing, Siyi
AU - Tu, K.N.
PY - 2022/10/15
Y1 - 2022/10/15
N2 - Black's mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) equation has been applied to predict electromigration lifetime in electronics for decades. It is an empirical equation, and at least three sets of data tested under two temperatures and two current densities are needed to determine the parameter n, activation energy E, and pre-factor A in the equation. Based on Onsager's entropy production theory, we derived a modified MTTF equation, in which n = 2 becomes definite. The activation energy E is intrinsic for materials; for SnAg solder joints, we can take it as 1 eV. Therefore, we only need one set of data (one temperature and one current density) to determine the perfector A, for predicting the electromigration lifetime of the test samples. Our modified MTTF equation provides a fast and cost-saving method for accurate prediction of the electromigration lifetime for electronic products.
AB - Black's mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) equation has been applied to predict electromigration lifetime in electronics for decades. It is an empirical equation, and at least three sets of data tested under two temperatures and two current densities are needed to determine the parameter n, activation energy E, and pre-factor A in the equation. Based on Onsager's entropy production theory, we derived a modified MTTF equation, in which n = 2 becomes definite. The activation energy E is intrinsic for materials; for SnAg solder joints, we can take it as 1 eV. Therefore, we only need one set of data (one temperature and one current density) to determine the perfector A, for predicting the electromigration lifetime of the test samples. Our modified MTTF equation provides a fast and cost-saving method for accurate prediction of the electromigration lifetime for electronic products.
KW - 3D integrated circuit
KW - Electromigration
KW - Lifetime prediction
KW - Solder joints
UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85134853631&partnerID=8YFLogxK
UR - https://www.scopus.com/record/pubmetrics.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85134853631&origin=recordpage
U2 - 10.1016/j.matlet.2022.132880
DO - 10.1016/j.matlet.2022.132880
M3 - RGC 21 - Publication in refereed journal
VL - 325
JO - Materials Letters
JF - Materials Letters
SN - 0167-577X
M1 - 132880
ER -