Emission factors of PM species based on freeway measurements and comparison with tunnel and dynamometer studies

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Author(s)

  • Zhi Ning
  • Andrea Polidori
  • James J. Schauer
  • Constantinos Sioutas

Detail(s)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3099-3114
Journal / PublicationAtmospheric Environment
Volume42
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2008
Externally publishedYes

Abstract

Emission factors of various particle species from light- and heavy-duty vehicles (LDVs and HDVs, respectively), including organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), sulfate, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, steranes, trace metals, elements, and particle number (PN), were estimated based on roadway measurements. Sampling campaigns were conducted at two different roadways: the CA-110 highway (where only gasoline-powered vehicles are allowed), and the I-710 freeway (where about 20% of the total number of vehicles are diesel-powered trucks). The particulate matter (PM) emission factors determined in these roadways were compared to those reconstructed from recent source emission data from the Caldecott tunnel [Phuleria, H.C., Geller, M.D., Fine, P.M., Sioutas, C., 2006. Size-resolved emissions of organic tracers from light- and heavy-duty vehicles measured in a California roadway tunnel. Environmental Science and Technology 40 (13), 4109-4118], and those from previous tunnel and chassis dynamometer studies. Very good agreement between estimated and reconstructed emission factors was found for PN, EC, sulfate, high-molecular-weight (MW) PAHs, hopanes and steranes. This suggests that PM-speciated chemical data collected at roadsides can be used to calculate reliable emission factors for several important particle species at other locations characterized by a similar mix of on-road motor vehicles. The agreement between our results and other studies in the emission factors of trace elements and metals varied from very good (for species such as Cu, Mo, Ba, Pb) to poor (for species such as Mg, Fe, Ca), probably because the atmospheric concentrations of the latter elements are associated with both traffic and non-traffic sources, and the relative abundances of Mg, Ca, and Fe in road dust varies considerably across locations. The emission factors of OC and EC were clearly the highest for HDVs, and those of PAHs, hopanes, and steranes from our roadway measurements were well within the range of values reported in the literature from tunnel and dynamometer studies. The approach presented in this paper allows for a straight-forward estimation of PM emission factors from ambient, near-freeway measurements. Although the uncertainties inherent in the method proposed here must be acknowledged (e.g. assumptions were made to estimate the average fleet composition and the total carbon content in the vehicles' exhaust), our results are generally in very good agreement with those in the available literature for most non-labile PM species. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Research Area(s)

  • CO2, Emission factors, Freeway, Heavy-duty vehicles, Hopanes, Light-duty vehicles, OC and EC, PAHs, Steranes, Sulfate, Trace metals and elements, Tunnel

Citation Format(s)

Emission factors of PM species based on freeway measurements and comparison with tunnel and dynamometer studies. / Ning, Zhi; Polidori, Andrea; Schauer, James J.; Sioutas, Constantinos.

In: Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 42, No. 13, 04.2008, p. 3099-3114.

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review