Electromigration in three-dimensional integrated circuits

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Original languageEnglish
Article number021309
Journal / PublicationApplied Physics Reviews
Issue number2
Online published16 May 2023
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023


The development of big data and artificial intelligence technology is increasing the need for electronic devices to become smaller, cheaper, and more energy efficient, while also having enhanced functionalities. However, the miniaturization of silicon chip technology is approaching its Moore's law (i.e., physical) limits. Thus, the application of three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs), in which multiple chips are stacked vertically, provides the most achievable approach for the advancement of post-Moore electronics. In the recent decade, various key techniques have been developed for stacking chips vertically such as through-silicon vias, micro-bumps, low melting point tin-bismuth solders, redistribution layers, and copper-to-copper direct bonding. However, the need for high current densities in these structures results in severe Joule heating, making electromigration (EM) an increasingly challenging problem. This paper reviews studies on EM failures, mechanisms, and potential solutions for the key components of 3D IC packaging. © 2023 Author(s).