Efficient and Automatic Breast Cancer Early Diagnosis System Based on the Hierarchical Extreme Learning Machine

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Original languageEnglish
Article number7772
Number of pages14
Journal / PublicationSensors
Issue number18
Online published9 Sept 2023
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023



Breast cancer is the leading type of cancer in women, causing nearly 600,000 deaths every year, globally. Although the tumors can be localized within the breast, they can spread to other body parts, causing more harm. Therefore, early diagnosis can help reduce the risks of this cancer. However, a breast cancer diagnosis is complicated, requiring biopsy by various methods, such as MRI, ultrasound, BI-RADS, or even needle aspiration and cytology with the suggestions of specialists. On certain occasions, such as body examinations of a large number of people, it is also a large workload to check the images. Therefore, in this work, we present an efficient and automatic diagnosis system based on the hierarchical extreme learning machine (H-ELM) for breast cancer ultrasound results with high efficiency and make a primary diagnosis of the images. To make it compatible to use, this system consists of PNG images and general medical software within the H-ELM framework, which is easily trained and applied. Furthermore, this system only requires ultrasound images on a small scale, of 28×28
pixels, reducing the resources and fulfilling the application with low-resolution images. The experimental results show that the system can achieve 86.13% in the classification of breast cancer based on ultrasound images from the public breast ultrasound images (BUSI) dataset, without other relative information and supervision, which is higher than the conventional deep learning methods on the same dataset. Moreover, the training time is highly reduced, to only 5.31 s, and consumes few resources. The experimental results indicate that this system could be helpful for precise and efficient early diagnosis of breast cancers with primary examination results. © 2023 by the authors.

Research Area(s)

  • extreme learning machine, image processing, breast cancer, cancer diagnosis

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